By Nagendra Singh Yadav on The Capital
Introduction to the Internet of things
Internet of things named “Internet of things” aiming to connect multiple things or devices in this world. The Use of IoT started in various fields as by side the development of network protocols. Some of the devices operate based upon IoT are Smart Homes and Home Automation. By connecting the IoT devices to the cloud, enables monitoring or operability of home appliances remotely with the help of computers or handheld devices such as smartphones.
It is assumed that if IoT is equipped with AI (Artificial intelligence), It becomes possible to realize the optimal operations of home appliances.
What is IIOT?
IIOT is formally known as the “Industrial Internet of Things,” was evolved from Machine to Machine Communication (M2M). In other words, this can be said as a Machine connecting to each other with the help of a network without human intervention.
The internet of things is also a natural Extension of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) or a distributed control system (DCS), which is a category of software application programs for process control. This involves the collection of data in real-time from remote locations to control hardware equipment and conditions. The SCADA/ DCS systems include hardware and software components.
The hardware devices capture the data and store the data into a computer that has SCADA software preinstalled, where it is then processed and presented in a timely manner.
- Device failure prediction
- optimized equipment service plan
- optimized process
- optimal manufacturing process plan
The real world is connected to the internet by IoT which is a digital twin and unlocks a possibility to create new values and business emerges.
The Industrial Internet of things is so important as its potential offers faster and efficient decision making. It provides every data in a depth detail, which is gathered in real-time, helping companies understanding their business processes better. With the analysis of data captured from sensors, we can create operational improvements that can unlock the new innovation revenue streams.
The architecture of IIOT systems
The architecture consists of:
- Intelligent systems — This can be thought of as IoT devices.
- Data Communication Infrastructure Network
- Analytics and applications so that data can be interpreted on cloud and applications.
- Users — Security.
Intelligent systems consist of Plant Instruments, equipment, machines, system, or other assets which are facilitated with sensors, processes, memory, and communication capability.
The IoT devices are connected to a field device and facilitate the capturing of data from those field devices and the operation of field devices. The information captured from the field could be temperature, pressure, and vibration. This consists of a gateway, a which is an interface function with the network. It could have hardware or middleware to interface between WIFI, 3G, or 4G.
Below pointers should be considered while designing or choosing an IoT device:
- Sensors range, accuracy, and resolution.
- Data Transfer bandwidth and various factors associated with it.
- Power consumption
- surrounding of Installation location
- regulation and costs
About Data Communication
- Wi-Fi — The devices that are approved by wifi alliance are capable to communicate with each other using Wi-Fi.
- Wireless PAN — This is a Low powered PAN which has some limitation when it comes to connectivity areas such as Bluetooth, IDRA, Wireless USB, and ZigBee.
- Cellular Network –This could be 4G/3G/5G whose scope is yet to be defined in several parts of the world.
- Low Power, Wide Area –This enables wide-area wireless communication along with low power.
The Cloud Computing
IoT based devices require servers to facilitate communication. Cloud computing is evolving over time to become a wider used platform and comes with a variety of loaded features such as device connectivity, Computation, and analytics for the data stored.
Below are the different ways to deploy cloud services —
- Public Cloud — These clouds are operated and managed by third-party companies or service providers. They allow the use of their resources used for computing such as servers and storage over the internet using a web browser. This could be seen as Microsoft Azure.
- Private cloud — The private cloud is those cloud services that allow services and infrastructure Maintenances on a private network and the allocated computing resources are to be used by a single business. The implementation of a Private cloud can be seen on Facebook, Apple, and Dropbox.
- Hybrid Cloud — Hybrid clouds are transformed using public and private clouds which are chained by the technology so that data and applications can be shared amongst them. A Hybrid cloud enables greater flexibility, wider deployment options, and helps you to optimize existing infrastructure, security, and compliance.
Analytics and Standard delivery models
The cloud offers wider benefits which include reduced project, operational, and associated maintenance cost. Instead of offering physical products for sale, the companies are offering products “as a service”. The cloud computing providers offer services according to the below mentioned standard models —
- IaaS (Infrastructure as a service)
- PaaS (Platform as a Service)
- SaaS (Software as a service)
PaaS is used to deploy consumer applications and consists of tools that are supported by the cloud infrastructure provider. The vendors of PaaS deliver a computing platform, typically consists of an operating system, the Execution environment of programming language, Database, and web servers.
On the other hand, SaaS enables the consumer or customer to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. Cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and allow cloud users to access the software from cloud clients. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as web browsers or a program interface. The cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platform which are capable to run those applications.
Applications of IIOT —
The applications of IIOT are:
- Consumer devices (such as smart homes and smart cars)
- Medical and Healthcare System
- Industrial Application (Manufacturing and Agriculture)
- Environment monitoring
Application Process Control Industry
In the case of large scale organizations, one hour of downtime can cost $100K in the case of lost production which can cause serious damage to the brand itself. The predictive maintenance using IIOT is a widely growing segment of the IIOT market. Most of the intelligent connected sensors can communicate directly to the host controller with the help of traditional automation architecture.
- Industrial IoT Security
- Data Privacy
- Industrial IoT standards
- Data Management
- Range of IIoT devices
- Deployment models
For any suggestions, one can write back to the author, if required. This article is prepared based on the author’s full knowledge.
Find me on Linkedin –